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Ordo Templi Orientis: a Brief Historical review.

[obtained from ]

Subject: Ordo Templi Orientis: a Brief Historical review.
by Bill Heidrick, I.T.G. of O.T.O.

Copyright (c) OTO

Ordo Templi Orientis
P.O.Box 430
Fairfax, CA  94930  USA

   Ordo Templi Orientis was founded before 1902 e.v. by Karl Kellner and Theodo
re Reuss (also known as Merlin) in Germany, with a principal mailing address in
 Lugano, Switzerland by 1917 e.v.  The immediate precursor organization was the
 Hermetic Brotherhood of Light, a mystical society founded in the mid 19th cent
ury, with branches in Europe and North America.  Prior to the Hermetic Brotherh
ood of Light, O.T.O. "traditional" history includes the Weishaupt Illuminati of
 the late 18th century and the Crusading Order of Knights Templar of the 11th c
entury as precursors.  It must be pointed out that many other organizations als
o claim derivation from the Illuminati and 11th century Templars, without actua
l evidence.  "Traditional" history is a euphemism for "mythology" in Masonic an
d mystical organizations; and, as such, "traditional" history expresses precurs
or relationships which are incapable of documentation and may be inaccurate.  I
t is documented that O.T.O. sprang from the Hermetic Brotherhood of Light as th
e creation of Karl Kellner, a member of that fraternity.  The Hermetic Brotherh
ood of Light continued independently of O.T.O., in its own right, and was still
 in existence in Oakland, California as late as 1970 e.v.
   In the first two decades of operation, Ordo Templi Orientis absorbed element
s of other fraternal and occult societies into its teachings and structure.  So
me of these absorbed societies actually granted limited or full authority of op
eration to O.T.O., while others were either represented by an overlapping membe
rship with O.T.O. or a "right to study" the educational secrets of the absorbed
 societies.  In 1912, a list of such absorbed societies or bodies was published
, including:  The Gnostic Catholic Church, The Order of the Knights of the Holy
 Ghost, The Order of the Illuminati, The Order of the Temple, The Order of the
Knights of St. John, The Order of the Knights of Malta, The Order of the Knight
s of the Holy Sepulchre, The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail, The Hermetic Brot
herhood of Light, The Holy Order of Rose Croix of Heredom, The Order of the Hol
y Royal Arch of Enoch, The Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry, The Rite of M
emphis, The Rite of Mizraim, The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry,
 The Swedenborgian Rite of Masonry, The Order of Martinists and the Order of th
e Sat Bhai.  This list was not considered complete, but included most of those
Masonic and knightly organizations that O.T.O. officers considered particularly
 important in the makeup of O.T.O.
   Ordo Templi Orientis under Theodor Reuss, Outer Head of the Order (O.H.O.),
was predominantly a Masonic organization, claiming ties with the Scottish Rite
as its primary Masonic credential.  This claim was disputed by some Scottish Ri
te Masonic bodies, and was abandoned by O.T.O. prior to 1922 e.v.  The Masonic
nature of O.T.O. down to the early 1920s e.v. was such that initiations to degr
ees in Scottish Rite Masonry were held to be equivalent to O.T.O. initiations.
 Scottish Rite and other Masons were granted membership in O.T.O. degrees by di
rect recognition of Masonic degrees already held.  For such Masons to enter O.T
.O. at a corresponding degree, it was only necessary for the O.T.O. Grand Lodge
 officers to issue a certificate of membership in O.T.O. at the degree in quest
ion and to record the new membership in the Golden Book.  For non-Masons, a ser
ies of initiations into O.T.O. was required.  These latter initiations were rep
resented by O.T.O. to confer Scottish Rite degrees.  In the early 1920s e.v., t
his practice effectively ended; and uniquely O.T.O. initiations were propagated
 within those portions of O.T.O. under the direction of Aleister Crowley.  At t
hat time the rituals of O.T.O. were rewritten by Aleister Crowley to prevent fu
rther difficulties through the rituals being too close to those of Craft and th
e Scottish Rite Masonry.
   Throughout the Reuss years (1902 e.v. to 1921 e.v.), membership in O.T.O. wa
s a matter of record.  Annual dues billings were sent out to members within the
 National branches of O.T.O.  The method of record was derived from Masonic pro
cedures.  A "Golden Book" was used to record the name, address and initiations
of each member.  The Golden Book was also used to record directives, constituti
onal amendments and procedures.  The Reuss period Golden Book was sold by Reuss
' widow, and not passed down to the next Head of the O.T.O.  The practice used
by Reuss from 1902 e.v. to 1921 e.v. in spreading the O.T.O. internationally wa
s through appointment and chartering of National Heads.  These individual O.T.O
. members were accorded the rank of Xth Degree (except when representing a Nati
onal Head in a developing area.  In that instance the Degree of IXth Degree Vic
eroy was sometimes given).  The Chartered Xth Degree National Heads were expect
ed to conduct the business of the O.T.O. largely without intrusive supervision
by the international body.  Such National Heads were required to adhere to the
1906 e.v. and 1917 e.v. revised O.T.O. constitution and to maintain good record
s of the membership in their respective countries.  National Golden Books were
maintained.  Dr. Gerard Encaasse (also known as Papus) was the Head for France.
  Encaasse's portion of O.T.O. became ultimately known as "The Franco-Haitian O
.T.O.".  Dr. Krumm Heller (known as Huiracocha) was Head of O.T.O. for Latin Am
erica, and his provincial portion of O.T.O. became known as Ordo Templi Orienti
s Antiqua, O.T.O.A. for short.  Charles Stansfeld Jones (known as Achad) was he
ad of O.T.O. in Canada, and attached his province to that of Aleister Crowley.
 Aleister Crowley (also known as Baphomet) had charge of O.T.O. in the British
Isles, the United States and Canada (with the cooperation of Jones).  Crowley u
sed the name "Mysteria Mystica Maxima" to describe the lower Degrees of his O.T
.O. province, but used "Ordo Templi Orientis" as the over-all name.  There were
 other Reuss era O.T.O. provinces in several European countries and in Brazil.
 Crowley chartered O.T.O. provinces in South Africa and in Australia.  Without
exception, all such national forms of O.T.O. were chartered, documented and rec
orded by the issuing O.T.O. authority.  Secondary chartering was also documente
d, e.g. AMORC, the San Jose, California based Rosicrucian organization, had a 1
921 e.v. "Gage of Amity" document from O.T.O. to their founder, H.S.Lewis, a VI
Ith Degree O.T.O. member.
   Theodor Reuss became ill and resigned as Head of the O.T.O. in 1921 e.v., dy
ing in the next year.  Aleister Crowley was the designated successor to the Hea
dship of the international O.T.O., and he was ultimately confirmed in that stat
us by Xth Degree National Heads.  Crowley served as the Outer Head of the Order
 from 1922 e.v. until his death in December of 1947 e.v..  Some National O.T.O.
 provinces were not initially willing to accept Aleister Crowley as O.H.O. of O
.T.O., owing to his insistence on the alignment of the predominant religious ex
pression of O.T.O. to Thelema, a religion based on Crowley's revelation of "The
 Book of the Law" in 1904 e.v., in Egypt.  This work is also called "Liber AL v
el Legis", and forms the primary religious focus of O.T.O. today.  A portion of
 the German O.T.O. resigned en masse and reconstituted itself as an entirely se
parate organization called Fraternitas Saturni.  Fraternitas Saturni continues
to the present day, in Germany, and does not represent itself as being O.T.O.
   Aleister Crowley continued the practices of Theodor Reuss, recording members
hip via the Golden Book and issuing charters.  Agape Lodge #1 had been establis
hed in 1912 e.v. in Canada, and was under Jones, under Crowley.  In the 1930s e
.v., Wilfred Smith (also known as Ramaka) came down from Vancouver, B.C., Canad
a, on instructions from Crowley to establish Agape Lodge #2 in Southern Califor
nia.  Agape Lodge #2 held its first meeting in 1935 e.v., in the vicinity of Pa
sadena, California.  World War II broke out, and international communications b
ecame increasingly disrupted.  Civilian travel was limited; and Crowley became
very dependent on foreign representatives, being unable to travel himself.  Kar
l Germer (also known as Saturnus), Crowley's German representative, was arreste
d by the German Geheime Staatspolizei (GESTAPO) and confined in a Nazi concentr
ation camp for "Seeking students for the foreign resident, high grade Freemason
, Crowley".  Germer's warrant of arrest survives to this day, and he was releas
ed early in the War through the efforts of the American Counsel.  Germer travel
ed ultimately to the United States, where, as Grand Treasurer General and Crowl
ey's second in command, he conducted much of the business of the O.T.O.  The ot
her European branches of O.T.O. were destroyed or driven underground during the
 War.  The South American branches maintained a light contact with Germer until
 the early 1960s e.v..
   By the end of the IInd World War, only Agape Lodge in Pasadena, California w
as still functioning.  There were isolated O.T.O. initiates in several parts of
 the World; and, in England, Crowley received visits from O.T.O. members.  No L
odge work was conducted in England at that time, and initiations were very rare
 outside of California.  The South American O.T.O.A. held no initiations; and s
ent a candidate, Dr. Montenegro, up to California for initiation.
   During the IInd World War, two Californian O.T.O. members traveled to Europe
 on military assignments, Grady Louis McMurtry (also known as Hymenaeus Alpha)
and Frederic Mellinger.  McMurtry went earlier and visited Aleister Crowley on
several occasions while on leave.  At that time, Crowley made McMurtry a IXth D
egree O.T.O. member, duly documented, and ultimately made McMurtry the chief O.
T.O. officer in charge of O.T.O. work in California and the United States, unde
r Karl Germer.  Crowley also notified McMurtry that Germer was to be Crowley's
successor as Head of O.T.O., but that McMurtry should hold himself prepared to
succeed Germer.  Mellinger visited Crowley after McMurtry was rotated back to t
he United States.  Although Crowley did ask Mellinger to hold himself ready as
a possible successor to Germer, Mellinger did not receive any assignments of th
e kind given to McMurtry.
   Crowley died in December of 1947 e.v.; and in accord with his wishes Karl Ge
rmer became International Head of O.T.O., serving from late 1947 e.v. until Ger
mer's death in 1962 e.v.  Agape Lodge continued in Southern California until 19
49 e.v., after which the Lodge ceased to hold regular meetings.  The records of
 Agape Lodge were conserved and comprise minutes of meetings, lists of members
initiated to various degrees in O.T.O. and financial records.
   Under Karl Germer, the O.T.O. entered a period of relative dormancy.  The on
ly initiations from the later Germer period were promotions to higher degree fo
r members initiated earlier.  Germer notified McMurtry and others that O.T.O. w
as to be incorporated and governed by a triumvirate of officers, but this incor
poration was never accomplished under Germer's headship of O.T.O.  Germer did c
harter a group in England under Kenneth Grant; but Germer closed the new group
in England and expelled Grant from O.T.O. membership in a letter which has surv
ived.  Germer also took an interest in the efforts of Herman Metzger in Switzer
land, and took steps to regularize Metzger into Crowley's O.T.O.  Metzger was t
hought to have come from a post war survival of the earlier Reuss period, but h
ad no original connection with Crowley's O.T.O.  Germer and Metzger fell into d
isagreement toward the end of Germer's life.  Frederic Mellinger wrote after Ge
rmer's death that Metzger had failed to satisfy the program of instruction set
forth for Metzger by Germer under Mellinger's tutelage.  Metzger has not engage
d in O.T.O. activity either directly or indirectly in the United States.
   O.T.O. members in California actively sought to influence Germer to reopen p
ublic access to O.T.O.  Concern was expressed in correspondence that a failure
to initiate new O.T.O. members would result in the ultimate demise of O.T.O.  G
rady McMurtry, the USA national master of O.T.O., attempted to convince Germer
of the necessity of returning O.T.O. to public activity.  Germer authorized McM
urtry to form a nucleus of new O.T.O. public access.  Germer and McMurtry had a
 falling out over a personal loan; and McMurtry traveled to Washington, DC to t
ake a job with the US Government until bad feeling with Germer could subside.
Germer did not expel McMurtry or revoke McMurtry's charters from Crowley.
   Following Karl Germer's death in 1962 e.v., several years passed before the
question of succession to Head of the O.T.O. was properly addressed.  Metzger i
n Switzerland published a claim to being the Head of the Order, but this claim
was based on an unnoticed election represented to have been held in Switzerland
.  Ranking members of O.T.O. were not informed of Metzger's purported election
until after the alleged fact.  Metzger was not generally accepted as Head of th
e Order outside his own group.  Kenneth Grant also asserted a claim to being He
ad of the O.T.O., but this was done after Germer had expelled Grant from member
ship.  In later years, Marcello Motta, a former student of Karl Germer, also as
serted that he was Head of O.T.O.  Germer had died without designating a succes
sor; and some ranking members, including Grady McMurtry, were not notified of h
is death for several years.

   Following disclosure of a robbery of O.T.O. archives from the home of Sascha
 Germer, Soror Meral, a member of O.T.O., contacted Grady McMurtry at his Washi
ngton, D.C. address.  McMurtry learned at that time of the death of Germer, yea
rs before, and of the theft of archives.  McMurtry came to California in his ca
pacities as an Inspector General of O.T.O., as the chartered Head of the USA O.
T.O. operations, and as a concerned member.  An investigation was conducted by
McMurtry of the archival robbery and of other library burglaries that occurred
around that time.  McMurtry was not able to recover the missing materials.
   In 1969 e.v., surviving O.T.O. members from the Germer and Crowley years wer
e invited to join with McMurtry resuming regular operations of O.T.O. Members S
r. Meral, Sr. Grimaud, M. Burlingame and Montenegro indicated willingness to se
e the O.T.O. accessible to the general public.  At that time there were less th
an a dozen surviving O.T.O. members in the United States.  Ray Burlingame had d
ied some years before, and Dr. Montenegro died before an organizational meeting
 could be held.  On 12/28/71, the Ordo Templi Orientis Association was register
ed with the State of California to form a legal entity for O.T.O.  This Associa
tion included members of Agape Lodge #2, from the Crowley and Germer period.  G
rady McMurtry produced his letters of charter, and assumed the title "Caliph of
 O.T.O.", as specified in Crowley's letters to McMurtry from the 1940s e.v.
   Sascha Germer died in the mid 1970s e.v., and the O.T.O. Association under M
cMurtry obtained a court order for delivery of the remnant of the O.T.O. archiv
es that had been in her custodianship.  This order was issued in the Superior C
ourt in Calaveras County, California, and filed July 27th, 1976 e.v.

   Under McMurtry, as Caliph or acting Head of O.T.O., several attempts were ma
de to attract new members to O.T.O.  A few new members were initiated through e
fforts centered in Dublin, California at The College of Thelema and in San Fran
cisco at the Kaaba Clerk House.  The San Francisco activity collapsed, and a ne
w member resigned.  Some years later, a person who was a visitor at the San Fra
ncisco location began representing himself as the Head of O.T.O.  This person w
as not an initiated member.  The Dublin California O.T.O. center ceased to be a
 major focus of O.T.O. activity.
   In 1977 e.v., McMurtry held O.T.O. initiations at his home in Berkeley, Cali
fornia.  A group formed at that new location, a newsletter was published and ul
timately the O.T.O. Association was converted into a corporation. O.T.O. was in
corporated under the laws of the State of California on March 26th, 1979 e.v.
Persons who had claimed in print to be O.T.O. members or who were known to be f
ormer members were notified of the formation of the corporation, and given a pe
riod of time to file a claim to continued membership, according to a precedent
established earlier by Karl Germer.  The corporation attained 501(c)3 Federal T
ax exemption as a religious entity in 1982 e.v., and presently includes over 1,
600 active members, world wide.
    During the period from 1962 e.v. (death of Karl Germer) to the present, a n
umber of occult membership societies have arisen.  Because of wide interest in
the writings of Aleister Crowley since those writings had been reprinted in the
 late 1960s e.v. and early 1970s e.v., many of these new societies styled thems
elves to a greater or lesser extent after Crowley's ideas and the model of O.T.
O.  Some individuals and some of these societies have confused the Thelemic rel
igion with the name Ordo Templi Orientis, possibly because many of Crowley's wr
itings on Thelema have been published under the auspices and with the marks of
O.T.O.  One common practice has been the formulation of names for new occult so
cieties with acronyms similar to O.T.O, e.g. O.T.A. for Ordo Templi Astarte, O.
T.B. for Ordo Templi Baphe-metis.  The titles of Crowley and O.T.O. works and p
eriodicals have also been used by some of these individuals and groups, e.g. O.
T.B. has published "The Aurea Flamma" where O.T.O. had used the name "Oriflamme
" for a publication.  Some disturbed individuals wrote to O.T.O. from mental ho
spitals, asserting that they were the true Head of O.T.O. A significant number
of individuals wrote to tell O.T.O. that they were the reincarnation of Aleiste
r Crowley, and that O.T.O. was remiss in not accepting the reincarnation of Ale
ister Crowley as its leader.  Some wrote to other people, asserting similar cla
ims and making unauthorized use of the name and symbols of O.T.O.  Several indi
viduals wrote to O.T.O. asserting that they had received further revelation of
additional material to Crowley's "Libel AL vel Legis", e.g. James Beck (also kn
own as Jimmi Rocket) of Oregon.  This category of correspondents also made occa
sional unauthorized use of the symbols and name of O.T.O.  Authors speculated a
bout the "Real Head of O.T.O.", notably Francis King of England, who wrote seve
ral books supporting different claimants over an extended period.  A few author
s published under fictitious titles and honors copied from O.T.O. history, e.g.
 Geoff Smith, of England, in his "Knights of the Solar Cross" and several autho
rs in "The Oriflamme" out of New York in 1975 e.v. and 1976 e.v.  Where address
es were available, O.T.O. wrote letters to the more outspoken of these individu
als and groups, requesting that they cease and desist representing themselves a
s O.T.O.  These strange representations have greatly diminished in the last fiv
e years as knowledge of the survival of O.T.O. has spread, but new instances co
ntinue to occur a fewtimes a year.
   Aside from individuals and groups representing themselves as O.T.O. based on
ly on the reading of published books, a number of instances occurred of a diffe
rent character.  A former member of O.T.O., Kenneth Grant of England, attracted
 adherents in the United States.  The "Grant O.T.O." people alleged that O.T.O.
 had ceased to be a membership organization in its traditional sense of having
Lodges.  Grant's adherents occasionally publish newsletters in the name of O.T.
O. and in support of Grant's claim to being the Head of O.T.O. Grant's people a
lso assert that O.T.O. should not have legal existence in the sense of incorpor
ation or legal association.  Kenneth Grant's representative in the USA has been
 changed an unknown number of times.  Grant asserts that Karl Germer was acting
 improperly when Germer expelled Grant from O.T.O. in the 1950s e.v., and that
Grant never recognized Germer as paramount in O.T.O. This assertion is flatly c
ontradicted by Grant's own "Manifesto of New Isis Lodge": "New Isis Lodge is in
 accord with the Master Therion (a Past Grand Master of O.T.O.); with the prese
nt Master S.'., who is World-Head of O.T.O. in the Outer, and who operates in t
he United States of America; and with the aforementioned Lodge in Germany contr
olled by the Master G.'.", p. 6, (S.'. = Frater Saturnus, Karl Germer).  Some f
ormer adherents of Grant have become estranged from him and have asserted that
they are independent O.T.O. leaders on their own.
   More substantial efforts were made to assume control of O.T.O. by Marcello M
otta under the name "Society Ordo Templi Orientis".  Mr. Motta was a personal s
tudent of Karl Germer for a number of years.  After Germer's death, Motta forme
d a group in his native country of Brazil.  Motta at first recognized Kenneth G
rant as Head of O.T.O., but resinded this recognition on learning of the Germer
 expulsion of Grant.  Motta published various claims to O.T.O. rank and members
hip in works titled "Equinox Volume V" and "Oriflamme", periodical names associ
ated with O.T.O. from the Crowley period.  Motta caused several people to file
S.O.T.O. corporation papers in the United States.  He was represented by indivi
duals in England, Brazil and Australia.  The representative of S.O.T.O. for the
 USA was located in Tennessee, and changed several times.  Motta came to the Un
ited States; and matters were brought to a head with his suit against Samuel We
iser, Inc., a publisher of Crowley's works.  Motta sued Weiser for copyright an
d trademark infringement, maintaining that Motta represented Crowley's O.T.O.
This case was decided in the US District Court in Maine.  Motta lost the case,
and the Judge found that Motta's representations regarding O.T.O. did not meet
the test of legal existence.  During the proceedings in Maine, the O.T.O. under
 McMurtry served Motta with a suit ultimately heard in the 9th Federal District
 Court in San Francisco.  The San Francisco case was concluded in 1985 e.v., wi
th Motta again losing.  The O.T.O. under McMurtry was recognized by the Court t
o be the continuation of the O.T.O. of Aleister Crowley and the exclusive owner
 of the names, trademarks, copyrights and other assets of O.T.O.  McMurtry was
found to be the Outer Head of O.T.O. within the United States.  The 9th Distric
t decision also recognized the McMurtry O.T.O. as a legal membership entity. Th
is decision was appealed and upheld.  Grady McMurtry died following the origina
l decision of the 9th District Court, but the process of appeal established tha
t O.T.O. continued as a corporation.
   Following the death of Grady McMurtry, I assumed custodial interim control o
f Ordo Templi Orientis in accord with the Bylaws, with the agreement of the rem
aining principal officer, Brother A. I., Grand Secretary General, and with the
agreement of the Board of Directors.  I proceeded to order an election for the
Headship of the O.T.O. Corporation and the position of acting Head of O.T.O.  T
his election took place two months after the death of Grady McMurtry, with all
voting members of O.T.O. present.   A new Caliph was elected and became acting
Head of O.T.O. in September of 1985 e.v.  This officer took the name "Hymenaeus
 Beta", and continues in office to this day.  I remain Grand Treasurer General
of O.T.O., an office I have held since the 1979 e.v.
incorporation, without interruption.

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