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WWW: Yezidis

To: alt.magick.tyagi,alt.satanism,talk.religion.misc,alt.islam.sufism,alt.sufi,alt.pagan,alt.religion.gnostic
From: (nocTifer)
Subject: WWW: Yezidis (2)
Date: 7 Jan 1998 22:34:28 -0800

[from ]

                                        Articles of our last edition
                   The Yezidis before Sheihk-Adi
                                     A scientific religious research
                                             by Dr. Pir Mamou Othman

    The Yezidi-religion is one the oldest controversial religions of
    the world. The fact, that Sheik-Adi Ibin Mustafa (ca. 1162 after
     Christ) introduced a radical change in the Yezidi-religion hang
   like a dark curtain in front of theYezidi past. It is unanimously
        held, that this religion existed before Sheik-Adi, but under
            other names as well as definitely with other Customs and

       An article "a focus on the Philosophy of the Yezidi-religion"
    presents the philosophical disputes in the Yezidi-religion, viz.
    Ta'usi-Melek as God's representative on the earth and not as the
       "Evil One", as other religions state, Ta'usi as the aesthetic
         Phenomenon, interpreted as such and firmly held only by the

 The Yezidis hold that Ta4usi-Melek is as fire with two dualistic
     elementary abilities: Fire as light, but also fire to burn: The
    good and the evil are one and the same Person. Simultaneously is
   a human being itself a mixture of two powers: good and evil, i.e.
              every Yezidi has a part of Ta4usi-Melek in himself.

      An ongoing research of the available Literature about the olde
    religions of the Near East point to no direct connection between
        the anmes before Sheihk-Adi with the names after him (in the
   Yezidi-religion), except from a few similar Feasts and Words, for
       eg. "Yazatas" = angel in Zorasthrianism/ Zarathustriansism)is
    similar to the word "Yezidi" = those, who worship the angel. Our
       intention here, is to present Customs, Feasts and Traditions.
             which exist in Mithraism, Zorasthriansism and Yezidism.

    Among the old religions which existed ca. 2000 V.C. in Kurdistan
      and Persia Mithraism because of its military character was the
     strongest, till the advent of Christianity there wes no radical
    change in the old religions. But new religions came on the scene
    - each with new characteristics and corresponding to the desires
       of their new followers and to fulfill present needs., for eg.
     Zorasthrianism, which followed Mithraism, which was reformed by
                Zorasther (ca. 550 B.C.) not as an abolishing of its
            revolutionary character, but rather an abolishing of the
         patriarchal character of Mithraism, Christianity (Rome) and
            Judaism (Palestina) differed essentially from Mithraism.

   Yezidism did not figue in these changes, because she was never in
      power. But rather other religions influenced her strongly. She
     was one of the oldest religions, which came with Mithraism from
      Indi into the today's Iran and Kurdisthan. What was she called
            and how many followers in this period of time is lost in
        oblivion. Regarding this, some authorities on religions give
         important tips, which support the above-mentionened thesis.

    "In the old and new 'Awesta' (the holy book of the Zorasthrians)
   one find Peoples, who stand contrary to the iranisan group, or at
   least pronounce about the chief names of their gods, speak rather
                about the Indians as the Iranians, because they were
      disparagingly labelled as Worshippers of "Deva" (=Devils). The
    "Gathas" appear as Deathenemies of the Zarusthrier also surface,
       which later from their gradually disappearing countrymen were
                                                 left behind......."

          A comparison with Zorasthrianismus shows, that it stronlgy
        influenced Yezidism. It is not suprising, because it was the
           official state-religion for over 300 years. Zorasthrians'
       influence on Yesidism is similar to that of Islam, especially
                during and after Sheik-Adi's appearance in Yezidism.

    The Yezidis pray in a way, which resembles the prayer-rituals of
   the Zorstrhians. Especially noticeable in the morning-prayer with
   the face turned towards the sun. The five chief prayers stem also
    from Zorasthrianism, and not from Islam, as is often stated. The
    Yezidis have two of these five Prayer-sesions as most important:
     namely viz. at Sunrise and at Sunset. The prayers are addressed
     to "Mithra" (the Sun-god) and not to Zarathusthra. Zarathusthra
    laid down seven serious Obligations, were seven Feasts dedicated
       to Ahura-Mazda. These Feasts were rather pasoral and agrarian
   regarded either as "military" (as in Mithraism) or "economic" (as
    in Islam). Yezidis have these feasts till today, but as movebale
           feasts i.e. a change in date to the seasons of the year).

    1. Maidhyoi-Zaremaya: By the Zarathustrians - mid-spring: By the
        Yezidis - ca. 14. April i.e with the Feast of the Fravashis,
    shich was celebrated by the Sassenites and Babyloians. It is the
             Yezidi-"Belinde" (Feast of the Dead) or Cejne Ser Sale"

        2. Maidhyoi-shema: By the Zarathustrians - midsummer. By the
      Yezidis also Midsummer approx. at the End of July and which is
    celebrated in Lalish, (the yezididi-holy-place, ca. 60 kms. from
                                                    Ninive (N.Irak).

      3. Paitshahya: By the Zarathustrians - a Harvest-feast. By the
   Yezidis - at the end of Aug. and everwhere in the countryside. By
       the Yezidis is Mahmad Rashan" as Protector of the harvest and
             especially of Rain.; his feast is celebrated in spring.

      4. Ayathriama: By the Zarathustrians - feast of the cattle. By
   the Yezidis the end of Spring. The Yezidi have two Saints for the
    cattle: Memyshivan, the holy protector of sheep and Gawanezersan
   as the holy Protector of the cow. The feast are named after these
                                                two holy protectors.

   5. Maidhyaira: By the Zarathustrians - mid-winter. By the Yezidis
    - at the beginning of October and last seven days. On Wednesday,
     the Yezidis call this feast Wednesdy-Kabach, when a oxen / bull
    is offered. The Yezidis call these seven days the feast of "Cema

    6. Hamaspath-maedaya By the Zarathustrians - feast at the end of
          Spring. By the Yezidis - at the end of Dec. (Belinde). The
     Christians in Kurdistan celebrate the same feast under the name
                                                        "Balinde" 3)
    Animals hold a special place in the old religions, especially in
   Mithraism and have an important meaning in the philosophy of life
        as well as in the relationship between the sun and the moon.
     Plenty of animals are painted in the most well-known Mithristic
            icons, which are ever till today identical with those in
     Sheikh-Adis shrine. Their interpretations are also identical to
                                     those of the Mithraistic feast.

    1. The Bull: The Mithras kill a bull as Offering. The Yezidis do
    the same in Autumn. They offer it for Mankind and the generation
   of a harmonious world, and for the original New Year's feast. The
         Bull earlier symboised Autumn, a rainy, fruitful green year
                                              follows its slaughter.

      2. The Snake: The snake for the Mithras was symbolical for the
     Cosmos and the Zodiac. The Snake is a path, over which the sund
      and the moon move. The sun and the moon follow a goal in their
       orbits. Hence the Zodiac is a symbol of time. Many scientists
      describe the snake as a symbol of movement and of development.
     The snake in Mithraism in connection with the zodiac symbolises
           the year and annual seasons The Yezidis regards the snake
           (especially the black snake) as holy, in fact as a saint.
            Sheik-Adi in his time gave a special interpretation: The
         Sheik-Caste's (Sheik-Mend) tribe is its guardian and is the
      nature-healer of the Yezidis. If a snake stings a Yezid, he is
        healed only through prayer of a member of this caste and his
       saliva on the snalebite's wound. The Snake-Icon is since time
                immemorial at the Sheik-Adi4s Tempel-exit in Lalish.

        3. The Scorpion: The scorpion in the mithraistic animalworld
        symbolises the sun. The snake goes into the sun-orbit on 23.
         October. The Yezidis have a special "Pir" (holy man). He is
      similar to the Sheik-Mend as nature-healer. "Pir Gerwa" is the
                                     holy protector of the Scorpion.

   One can definitely state, that the Yez. have taken over the Bull,
        the Snake and the Scorpion, not from the Zorasthrianism, but
     rather from Mithraism. The snake and the scorpion are described
      in the Avesta as harmful animals - sent by Ariram. The one who
    kills it, does a good deed. The influence of Mithraism outweighs
           that of Zorasthrianism on Yezidis being a minority wasn't
    confronted by other religions before the invasion of Islam. From
extensive study of the Yezid4s feasts, it is clear, that not only
     these two iranian religions influenced it, but that it also had
       jewish and christian influences. Even nowa-days there are are
     many feasts and religious customs which are similar to those of
     the Jews and Christians, for eg. the Circumcision and the Feast
     of Offerings (the story of Abraham and Isaac). The Star of Kind
    David is on the Sheik-Adi's temple wall, which most probably was
       begun during the ban on Jews and Yezid-Kurdisthan was the 1st
       hisorical country of exile for the Jews - several hundreds of
        jewish prisoners were sent to Kurdisthan, after King Hosea's
          refusal of to pay tribute to the Assyrian King Salmanesser
      (727-22 B.C.). The Christian Easter, in fact the names of Mary
    and Jesus were expressly mentioned in the Yezid religious texts,
    where they have a place of honorable saints. The Christians also
           took over some customs from the Yezidis: the colouring of
      Easter-eggs, the fire and the decoration of the house-entrance
                                                       with flowers.

     The available Yezid-texts give the impression, that it is a new
           religion, because of several islamic terms: the important
      Personalities, Mohammad, Ali, Hassan, Abubhakir, Omer etc. are
    regarded as saints. These are simultaneously a proof, that Islam
            strongly influenced Yezidism. There are Poets, who wrote
      critically the Yezid religious texts during Sheik-Adi's time -
                                     most of these bear their names:

      1. Hasede Al-Tawri: "About the advice re. leading a moral life
                                                  for every Yezidi."

                        2. Pise Cemn: "Sheik-Adi and the Saints."

         3. Pir Dawood: "The war agains Sheik-Adi and his followers"

    4. Sheikh-Fakhre Adia: a) "Praise about Sheik-Hassan" b) "Sheikh
                      5. Pir Sheref: "Qawle Baza" about Sheikh-Adi."

                               6. Pir Khidir: "Qawale Darweshi Adam"
      Islam extended its power after Sheik-Adi's arrival. A decisive
    majority of Feasts, Customs and oral religious transmission stem
                                         from the Post-Islam period.

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