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The Enochian Apocalypse

Subject: The Enochian Apocalypse
                            by Donald Tyson
                      Back To Main Enochian Page
   Were John Dee's Enochian Keys of magic intended to unleash
   violent occult forces that would hurl us into another age?
   Between the years 1582 and 1589 the English scholar John Dee
   (1527-1608) conducted a series of ritual communications with a
   set of disincarnate entities who eventually came to be known as
   the Enochian angels. It was Dee's plan to use the complex system
   of magic communicated by the angels to advance the expansionist
   policies of his sovereign, Queen Elizabeth I. At the time England
   lay under the looming shadow of invasion from Spain. Dee hoped to
   control the hostile potentates of Europe by commanding the
   tutelary spirits of their various nations.
   Dee was a thoroughly remarkable man. Not only was he a skilled
   mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer, but he was also the
   private astrologer, counselor, and (some believe) confidential
   espionage agent of Queen Elizabeth.(1) His father had been a
   gentleman sewer (a kind of steward) at the table of Henry VIII.
   When Elizabeth ascended to the throne in 1558, Dee was asked to
   set an auspicious date for her coronation. Always intensely loyal
   to the Protestant Elizabeth, he had earlier been falsely accused
   of trying to kill her predecessor, the Catholic Queen Mary, with
   sorcery. His intellectual brilliance and skill as a magician were
   famous, and infamous, throughout Europe.
   In his occult work he was aided by an equally extraordinary
   person, Edward Kelley (also spelled "Kelly"; 1555-1597), the son
   of a Worcester apothecary, who dreamed of discovering the secret
   of the philosopher's stone and dabbled in the black art of
   necromancy. Fleeing Lancaster in 1580 on charges of forging title
   deeds, Kelley found it prudent to set out on a walking tour of
   Wales. Somewhere near Glastonbury (so the story goes) he
   purchased a portion of the fabled red powder that could turn base
   metals into gold; the source of the powder was an innkeeper who
   had received it from tomb robbers.(2)
   For the remainder of his colorful life Kelley labored to unlock
   the secret of the red powder so that he could manufacture more of
   it himself. It was on this quest for alchemical knowledge that he
   sought out the library of John Dee in 1582, and it was primarily
   for this reason that he agreed to serve as Dee's seer.
   Dee was a saint, Kelley a rogue, but they were bound together by
   their common fascination with ceremonial magic and the wonders it
   promised. Dee possessed little talent for mediumship. He tried to
   overcome this limitation by hiring a mountebank named Barnabas
   Saul as his professional scryer but had poor results. When Dee
   learned of Kelley's considerable psychic abilities, he eagerly
   employed Kelley as his seer for the sum of 50 pounds per annum.
   Dee invoked the Enochian angels to visible appearance within a
   scrying crystal or a black mirror of obsidian by means of prayers
   and certain magical seals. After Kelley had alerted Dee to the
   presence of the spirits, Dee questioned them. Kelley reported
   their sayings and doings back to Dee, who recorded them in his
   magical diaries.
   The most important portion of Dee's transcription of the Enochian
   communications, covering the years 1582-1587, was published in
   London in 1659 by Meric Casaubon under the tide A True and
   Faithful Relation of What Passed for Many Years between Dr. John
   Dee ...and Some Spirits. This fascinating work has been reprinted
   several times in recent decades and is readily available.
   The Enochian spirits got their name from the nature of the
   magical system they described. It was, they claimed, the very
   magic that the biblical patriarch Enoch had learned from the
   angels of heaven. The angel Ave told Dee, "Now hath it pleased
   God to deliver this Doctrine again out of darknesse: and to
   fulfill his promise with thee, for the books of Enoch."(3) I
   Compared to it, all other forms of magic were mere playthings.
   Although Dee faithfully recorded all the details of Enochian
   magic in his diaries, he never tried to work this system in any
   serious way. We cannot know the reason with certainty. In 1589 he
   broke with Kelley, who stayed on in Bohemia to manufacture gold
   for the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II while Dee returned to
   England at the request of Elizabeth, a circumstance that may have
   inconvenienced his plans. But it is my contention that Dee was
   awaiting permission from the angels to employ their magic, and
   this permission was not given in his lifetime.
   It is necessary to state unequivocally for those unfamiliar with
   Enochian magic that neither Dee nor Kelley fabricated the spirit
   communications. Both believed completely in the reality of the
   angels, although they differed about the motives of these beings.
   Dee believed them to be obedient agents of God who submitted to
   the authority of Christ. Kelley mistrusted them and suspected
   them of deliberate deception. The dislike was mutual. The angels
   always treated Kelley with amused contempt. Kelley hoped the
   angels would communicate the secret of the red powder, which was
   the only reason he endured their insults for so many years.
   There is no space here to enter into the question of the nature
   and objective reality of spirits, nor is it likely that any
   conclusions could be reached on this difficult subject. Whatever
   their essential nature, the Enochian angels acted as independent,
   intelligent beings with their own distinct personalities and
   purposes. This is how Dee and Kelley regarded them, and this is
   how I shall regard them in this essay. Using this assumption, I
   will present what I believe to be the angels' secret agenda,
   which they concealed from Dee: to plant among mankind the ritual
   working that would initiate the period of violent transformation
   between the present aeon and the next, commonly known as the
  The Gates and the Keys
   What the Enochian angels conveyed to Dee was not merely a potent
   form of magic to rule the tutelary spirits of the nations. It was
   an initiatory formula designed to open the locked gates of the
   four great watchtowers that stand guard against chaos at the
   extremities of our universe. The Watchtowers are described by the
   angel Ave:
     "The 4 houses, are the 4 Angels of the Earth, which are the 4
     Overseers, and Watchtowers, that the eternal God in his
     providence hath placed, against the usurping blasphemy,
     misuse, and stealth of the wicked and great enemy, the Devil.
     To the intent that being put out to the Earth, his envious
     will might be bridled, the determinations of God fulfilled,
     and his creatures kept and preserved, within the compasse and
     measure of order."(4)
   These Watchtowers, represented in Enochian magic by alphabetical
   squares, are equivalent to the four mystical pillars of Egyptian
   mythology that hold up the sky and keep it from crashing into the
   earth. They bar the chaotic legions of Coronzon from sweeping
   across the face of the world. Coronzon, the angels reveal, is the
   true heavenly name for Satan.(5) He is also known by the Enochian
   title of Death-Dragon or Him-That-Is-Fallen (Telocvovim).(6)
   The Enochian Calls or Keys (the angels refer to them by both
   titles) are 48 spirit evocations delivered to Dee and Kelley in
   the Enochian language and then translated into English word for
   word by the angels. The overt purpose of the Keys, the angels
   declared, was to enable Dee to establish ritual communication
   with the spirits of the 30 Aethers or Airs who rule over the
   tutelary spirits of the nations of the earth. There are actually
   49 Keys, but the first, the angels said, is too sacred and
   mysterious to be voiced. The first eighteen explicit Keys are
   completely different in their wording; the last 30 are similar
   save for the name of the Aether inserted in the first line. The
   angel Raphael declares the expressed purpose the Keys to Dee:
     "In 49 voyces, or callings: which are the Natural Keyes, to
     open those, not 49, but 48. (for One is not to be opened)
     Gates of understanding, whereby you shall have knowledge to
     move every Gate, and to call out as many as you please, or
     shall be thought necessary, which can very well, righteously,
     and wisely, open unto you the secrets of their Cities, and
     make you understand perfectly the [mysteries] contained in the
   The tables referred to are the 49 alphabetical tables from which
   the Keys were generated, one letter at a time, by the Enochian
   angels. The Keys are related in sets to the four Watchtowers,
   which contain the names of various hierarchies of spirits.
   Dee's blindness to the true function of the Keys is curious,
   because clues about their nature are everywhere for those with
   eyes to see them. The Enochian communications are filled with
   apocalyptic pronouncements and imagery. Again and again the
   angels warn of the coming destruction of the world by the wrath
   of God and the advent of the Antichrist. This apocalyptic imagery
   is also found throughout the Keys themselves.
   The very name of these evocations should have been clue enough.
   Surely if the Watchtowers stand guard at the four corners of our
   dimension of reality, keeping back the hordes of Coronzon from
   descending like "stooping dragons," as the Eighth Key puts it,
   and if the evocations known as the Keys are designed to open the
   gates of these watchtowers, we might suspect that it would be a
   bad idea to unlock the gates.
   Perhaps Dee believed, as the angels deceitfully encouraged him to
   believe, that the gates could be opened a crack for specific
   human purposes and then slammed shut before anything too horrible
   slipped through to our dimension of awareness. Dee would have
   assumed that the harrowing of the goddess Earth and her children
   by the demons of Coronzon would not occur until the preordained
   time of the apocalypse, an event initiated by God and presumably
   beyond Dee's control.
   What he failed to understand is that the date of the initiation
   of the apocalypse is (in the intention of the angels) the same
   date as the successful completion of the full ritual working of
   the 48 Keys. This date is not predetermined, but will be
   determined by the free will and actions of a single human being
   who in the Revelation of St. John is called the Antichrist.
  The Nature of the Apocalypse
   It has always been generally assumed that the apocaIypse is in
   the hands of the angels of wrath, to be visited upon the world at
   the pleasure of God, at a moment preordained from the beginning
   of creation. In the veiled teachings of the Enochian angels this
   is not true. The gates of the Watchtowers can only be unlocked
   from the inside. The angels of wrath cannot initiate the
   apocalypse even if they wish to do so. This is suggested by an
   exchange between Dee and the angel Ave:
     Dee - As for the form of our Petition or Invitation of the
     good Angels, what sort should it be of?
     Ave - A short and brief speech.
     Dee - We beseech you to give us an example: we would have a
     confidence, it should be of more effect.
     Ave - I may not do so.
     Kelley - And why?
     Ave - Invocation proceedeth of the good will of man, and of
     the heat and fervency of the spirit: And therefore is prayer
     of such effect with God.
     Dee - We beseech you, shall we use one form to all?
     Ave - Every one, after a divers form.
     Dee - If the minde do dictate or prompt a divers form, you
     Ave - I know not: for I dwell not in the soul of man. (8)
   Spiritual beings must be evoked into our reality by human beings.
   We must open the gates and admit the servants of Coronzon
   ourselves. Evocation and invocation are not a part of the
   business of angels, but of humans. That is why the angels needed
   to go through the elaborate ruse of conveying the system of
   Enochian magic, with the Keys and the Great Table of the
   Watchtowers, to Dee. If the apocalypse is to take place, and if
   it is necessary for human beings to open the gates of the
   Watchtowers before it can take place, the angels first had to
   instruct a man in the correct method for opening the gates.
   It is evident that Dee was to be restrained from opening the
   gates of the Watchtowers until it pleased the angels. The angel
   Gabriel, who purports to be speaking with the authority of God,
   tells him:
     "I have chosen you, to enter into my barns: And have commanded
     you to open the Corn, that the scattered may appear, and that
     which remaineth in the sheaf may stand. And have entered into
     the first, and so into the seventh. And have delivered unto
     you the Testimony of my spirit to come.
     "For, my Barn hath been long without Threshers. And I have
     kept my flayles for a long time hid in unknown places: Which
     flayle is the Doctrine that I deliver unto you: Which is the
     Instrument of thrashing, wherewith you shall beat the shears,
     that the Corn which is scattered, and the rest may be all one.
     "(But a word in the mean season.)
     "If I be Master of the Barn, owner of the Corn, and deliverer
     of my flayle: If all be mine (And unto you, there is nothing:
     for you are hirelings, whose reward is in heaven.)
     "Then see, that you neither thresh, nor unbinde, until I bid
     you, let it be sufficient unto you: that you know my house,
     that you know the labour I will put you to: That I favour you
     so much as to entertain you the labourers within my Barn: For
     within it thresheth none without my consent."(9)
   Surely nothing could be clearer. Throughout the Enochian commun-
   ications the angels euphemistically refer to the apocalypse as
   "the Harvest." Here Enochian magic is specifically described as
   the "Instrument of thrashing." Yet Dee did not comprehend the
   awesome significance of the burden that had been laid upon his
   shoulders. Elsewhere in the record the angel Mapsama is just as
   explicit about the need for Dee to await permission before
   attempting to use the Keys:
     Mapsama - These Calls are the keyes into the Gates and Cities
     of wisdom. Which [Gates] are not able to be opened, but with
     visible apparition.
     Dee - And how shall that be come unto?
     Mapsama - Which is according to the former instructions: and
     to be had, by calling of every Table. You called for wisdom,
     God hath opened unto you, his judgement: He hath delivered
     unto you the keyes, that you may enter; But be humble. Enter
     not of presumption, but of permission. Go not in rashly; But
     be brought in willingly: For, many have ascended, but few have
     entered. By Sunday you shall have all things that are
     necessary to be taught, then (as occasion serveth) you may
     practice at all times. But you being called by God, and to a
     good purpose.
     Dee - How shall we understand this Calling by God?
     Mapsama - God stoppeth my mouth, I will answer thee no
   Despite these hints and many others, the angels never actually
   came out and told Dee that he was to be the instrument whereby
   the ritual formula for initiating the apocalypse would be planted
   in the midst of humanity. Here it would sit like a ticking occult
   time bomb, waiting for some clever magician, perhaps guided by
   the angels, to work it. Dee evidently never received the signal
   to conduct the Apocalypse Working in his lifetime. It was to be
   reserved for another century and another man. That man was
   Aleister Crowley (1875-1947).
  Enter the Great Beast
   Even as a child, Crowley became convinced that he was the Great
   Beast mentioned in the biblical book of Revelation. He studied
   magic with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, then went on to
   construct his own occult system using an amalgamation of the
   ritual working of Abramelin the Mage, the Goetia, and the Tantric
   sexual techniques of the German Ordo Templi Orientis, among other
   He firmly believed that he was the herald for a new age of strife
   and destruction that would sweep across the world. He called this
   the Aeon of Horus, after the Egyptian god of war. In Cairo in
   1904, he received the bible of this apocalyptic period, LiberAL
   vel Legis (The Book of the Law), in the form of a psychic
   dictation from his guardian angel, Aiwass. The book sets forth
   some of the conditions that will prevail in the Aeon of Horus. It
   also contains Crowley's famous dictum "Do what thou wilt shall be
   the whole of the Law."(11)
   It is highly significant that Crowley never considered himself to
   be the Antichrist. He is not the central character in the drama
   of the apocalypse, but the herald who ushers in the age of chaos.
   In a very real sense he was the gatekeeper of the apocalypse. The
   text of The Book of the Law clearly states:
     "This book shall be translated into all tongues: but always
     with the original in the writing of the Beast; for in the
     chance shape of the letters and their position to one another:
     in these are mysteries that no Beast shall divine. Let him not
     seek to try: but one cometh after him, whence I say not, who
     shall discover the key of it all."(12)
   Crowley studied and practiced Enochian magic more often and
   deeply than any other magician of the Golden Dawn, indeed
   probably more deeply than any other human being who has ever
   lived. About the angelic communications of Dee and Kelley he
   writes: "Much of their work still defies explanation, though I
   and Frater Semper Pararus [Thomas Windram], an Adeptus Major of
   the A[rgenteum] A[strum] have spent much time and research upon
   it and cleared up many obscure points."(13)
   The record of Crowley's working of the Enochian Aethers in 1909
   in the desert of North Africa is preserved in the document titled
   The Vision and the Voice. He possessed a profound and broad
   understanding of ritual magic, an understanding that was not
   merely theoretical but practical. No other man of the twentieth
   century was better suited to initiate the Apocalypse Working,
   even as there had been no man in the sixteenth century better
   suited than Dee to receive it from the Enochian angels.
   Interestingly, Crowley believed himself to be the reincarnation
   of Edward Kelley.
   I doubt that Crowley ever succeeded in correctly completing the
   entire Enochian Apocalypse Working -- that is, the primal occult
   Key which is nowhere recorded, the eighteen manifest Keys, and
   the Key of the 30 Aethers in their correct correspondence with
   the parts of the Great Table of the Watchtowers. But he may have
   succeeded in partially opening the gates of the Watchtowers. It
   is significant that he states concerning the African working with
   his disciple Victor Neuberg: "As a rule, we did one Aethyr every
   day."(15) About the method for invoking the spirits of the
   Watchtowers, the angel Ave tells Dee:
     "Four days ...must you only call upon those names of God [on

     the Great Table of the Watchtowers], or on the God of Hosts,
     in those names:
     "And 14 days after you shall (in this, or in some convenient
     place) Call the Angels by Petition and by the name of God,
     unto the which they are obedient.
     "The 15 day you shall Cloath yourselves, in vestures made of
     linen, white: and so have the apparition, use, and practice of
     the Creatures. For, it is not a labour of years, nor many
   It seems clear to me that the complete Apocalypse Working must be
   conducted on consecutive days, one Key per day. I would guess
   that the unexpressed primordial Key of the Great Mother is the
   missing ingredient that will complete the Working, but this is a
   matter of practical magic and there is no space to investigate
   the details of the Apocalypse Working in this brief essay.
   Crowley remained firmly convinced until his death in 1947 that
   the Aeon of Horus had begun in 1904, precisely at the time he
   received The Book of the Law. He may have been right. The Aeon of
   Horus is the duration of the apocalypse, that period when
   Coronzon shall rule over the cosmos and visit destruction upon
   mankind. And the apocalypse is a mental transformation that will
   occur, or is presently occurring, within the collective
   unconscious of the human race.
  A Mental Armageddon
   Fundamentalist Christians commonly believe that the end of the
   world will be a completely physical event and will be sparked by
   some horrifying material agent -- global thermonuclear war, or
   the impact of a large asteroid, or a deadly plague.
   This supposition is natural in view of the concrete imagery of
   the book of Revelation. It is in keeping with the materialistic
   world view of modern society. But nobody stops to consider that
   this destruction is described by angels, or that angels are
   spiritual, not physical, beings.
   In my opinion the apocalypse prepared by the Enochian angels must
   be primarily an internal, spiritual event, and only in a
   secondary way an external, physical catastrophe. The gates of the
   Watchtowers that stand guard at the four corners of our dimension
   of reality are mental constructions. When they are opened, they
   will admit the demons of Coronzon, not into the physical world,
   but into our subconscious minds.
   Spirits are mental, not material. They dwell in the depths of
   mind and communicate with us through our dreams, unconscious
   impulses, and more rarely in waking visions. They affect our
   feelings and our thoughts beneath the level of our conscious
   awareness. Sometimes they are able to control our actions, either
   partially, as in the case of irrational and obsessive behavior
   patterns, or completely, as in the case of full possession.
   Through us, and only through us, are they able to influence
   physical things.
   The Enochian communications teach not only that humanity itself
   must initiate the apocalypse through the magical formula
   delivered to Dee and Kelly, but that humans must be the physical
   agents that bring about the plagues, wars, and famines described
   with such chilling eloquence in the vision of St. John. It is we
   who will let the demons of Coronzon into our minds by means of a
   specific ritual working. They will not find a welcome place there
   all at once, but will worm their way into our subconscious and
   make their homes there slowly over time. In the minds of
   individuals that resist this invasion they will find it difficult
   to gain a foothold, but in the more pliable minds of those who
   welcome their influence they will establish themselves readily.
   Once the demons have taken up residence, we will be powerless to
   prevent them from turning our thoughts and actions toward chaotic
   and destructive ends. These apocalyptic spirits will set person
   against person and nation against nation, gradually increasing
   the madness and chaos in human society until at last the full
   horror of Revelation has been realized upon the stage of the
   world. The corruption of human thoughts and feelings may require
   generations to bring to full fruition. Only after the wasting and
   burning of souls is well advanced will the full horror of the
   apocalypse achieve its final fulfillment in the material realm.
   Let us suppose for the sake of argument that the signal for the
   initiation of this psychic invasion occurred in 1904 when Crowley
   received the Book of the Law, as he himself believed. Crowley's
   Enochian evocations of 1909 then pried the doors of the
   Watchtowers open a crack enough to allow a foul wind to blow
   through the common mind of the human race. This would explain the
   senseless slaughter of the First World War and the unspeakable
   horror of the Nazi Holocaust during the Second World War. It
   would explain the decline of organized religions and why the
   soulless cult of science has gained supremacy. It would explain
   the moral and ethical bankruptcy of modern times and the increase
   in senseless violence.
   We may not have long to wait before the individual known in the
   vision of St. John as the Antichrist, the one foretold in
   Crowley's Book of the Law to follow after the Beast, will succeed
   in completing the Apocalypse Working. Then the gates of the
   Watchtowers will truly gape wide, and the children of Coronzon
   will sweep into our minds as crowned conquerors. If this chilling
   scenario ever comes to pass, the wars of the twentieth century
   will seem bucolic to those who survive the slaughter.
   1. See Richard Deacon, John Dee: Scientist, Geographer,
   Astrologer and Secret Agent (London: Frederick Muller, 1968). See
   also Cherry Gilchrist, "Dr. Dee and the Spirits," in GNOSIS #36.
   2. See the introduction to The Alchemical Writings of Edward
   Kelley, ed. A.E. Waite (New York: Samuel Weiser, 1970 [1893]).
   3. Meric Casaubon, ed., A True & Faithful Relation Of What Passed
   for many Yeers Between Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great
   Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes) and Some Spirits
   (Glasgow: Antonine Publishing Co., 1974 [16591), p. 174.
   4. Ibid., p. 170.
   5. Ibid., p. 92.
   6. Ibid., p. 207.
   7. Ibid., p. 77.
   8. Ibid., p. 188.
   9. Ibid. p. 161.
   10. Ibid. pp. 145-46.
   11. Aleister Crowley, The Book of the Law, ms. pp. 10-11.
   12. Ibid., ch. 3, para. 47.
   13. Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, ed.
   John Symonds and Kenneth Grant (London: Arkana, 1989), p. 611.
   14. Aleister Crowley, "Liber XXX AERUM vel Saeculi sub figura
   CCCCXVIII being of the Angels of the Thirty Aethyrs, the Vision
   and the Voice:" in The Equinox, vol. 1, no. 5, supplement, 1911.
   Reprinted as The vision and the Voice, ed. Israel Regardie
   (Dallas, Texas: Sangreal Foundation, 1972). See also Crowley,
   Confessions, ch. 66.
   15. Crowley, Confessions, p. 618.
   16. Casaubon, p. 184.
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